The history of calligraphy in Iran dates back to the pre Islam era. In Zoroastrianism beautiful and clear writings were always praised. With the advent of Islam, calligraphy got entered a new era. When Islam spread throughout other regions, where people did not speak Arabic, variant forms of the Arabic alphabet were created. At the time there were six major calligraphy styles categorized as: “Mohagh’agh”, “Reyhan”, “Sols”, “Naskh”, “Reghaa”, and “Tow’ghee”. Eventually in the 14th century, calligraphers combined two existing forms, “Naskh” and “Taligh” (itself, derived from “Reghaa”), and created the most attractive Persian Calligraphy style, “Nas’taliq”.
Nas’taligh is the most beautiful Iranian Calligraphy style and also technically the most complicated. It has strict rules for graphical shape of the letters and for combination of the letters, words, and composition of the whole calligraphy piece as a whole. It is really important to note that unlike its ancestors, Nas’taliq follows natural curves. In other words, unlike Arabic scripts that follow logical/geometrical designs, Nas’taliq follows the nature and natural curves.
Praise تحسین کردن
Advent ظهور و پیدایش
Era عصر و دوران
Spread گسترش یافتن
Create بوجود آوردن
Categorize دسته بندی کردن
Eventually سر انجام
Combine ترکیب کردن
Rule قاعده و دستور
Unlike برعکس چیزی
A) Choose the synonym of each word:
1. combine: [
a] report [b] shoot [c] threaten [d] mix
[a] important [b] crime [c] complex [d] unlike
[a] finally [b] exactly [c] healthy [d] bravery
[a] rear [b] distribute [c] reward [d] deem
B) Choose the correct word to fill the blank.
calligraphy / praised / advent / unlike
1. Jane was ……………. by her teacher because of her awesome report.
2. ………….….. most people in the company, I don’t come to work by bus.
3. By the ………………… of the computer, world has changed.
4. Anna learned ……………………. from her grandfather.
پاسخ تمرین ها
1. combine = [d] mix
2. complicated = [c] complex
3. eventually = [a] finally
4. spread = [b] distribute