The Nobel Prize is the legacy of Sweden’s Alfred Nobel (1833–۱۸۹۶). Prizes are awarded to ‘those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.’ ۱۰ December is Nobel Day, both in Sweden and in Norway. At the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in the Stockholm Concert Hall that day, the winners in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature receive a medal from the King of Sweden, as well as a diploma and a cash award. The ceremony is followed by a gala banquet. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo City Hall on the same day. The Nobel Prize is currently SEK 8 million (USD 1.1 million, EUR 0.8 million) for each prize category, even when the prize is shared. There may be no more than three winners, or laureates, for each prize category.
Who was Alfred Nobel?
Swede Alfred Nobel was a chemist, engineer, inventor and entrepreneur. He was born on 21 October 1833, in Stockholm and died on 10 December 1896, in San Remo. He was devoted to the study of explosives, and his inventions include a blasting cap, dynamite and smokeless gunpowder. Nobel became famous across the world when the St. Gotthard Tunnel was built in 1882 and dynamite was used for the first time on such a large scale. Nobel, who had no children, signed his last will in 1895 and declared that the bulk of his estate should be converted into a fund and invested in safe securities.
The four institutions in Sweden and Norway conferring the prizes were to be ‘the Swedish Academy of Sciences, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, the Academy in Stockholm’ and ‘a committee of five persons to be elected by the Storting’ (the Norwegian Parliament). In 1900, the four institutions awarding the prizes agreed to create the Nobel Foundation, a private institution based on the will of Alfred Nobel. The Nobel Foundation would administer Alfred Nobel’s willed assets, totalling SEK 31 million (quite a sum of money at the time), make public announcements and arrange the prize ceremonies.
Nobel Prize جایزه ی نوبل
award اعطا کردن
currently در حال حاضر
laureates برندگان جایزه
devote وقف کردن
declare اظهار داشتن
convert تبدیل کردن
invest سرمایه گذاری کردن
agree موافقت کردن
arrange ترتیب دادن
Fill the blank with the correct word.
devoted / announcement / invest / invention / invest
a) The ………….. of the computer has revolutionized the business world.
b) She …………… herself full-time to her business.
c) Since earliest times, …………… has been fascinated by fire.
d) We were shocked by the ……………. that the mayor was resigning.
e) I’ve got a few thousand dollars. I’m looking to …………. .